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International Journal of Oral Implantology
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Int J Oral Implantol 13 (2020), No. 1     17. Mar. 2020
Int J Oral Implantol 13 (2020), No. 1  (17.03.2020)

Page 43-52


Platform switching versus regular platform single implants: 5-year post-loading results from a randomised controlled trial
Meloni, Silvio Mario / Lumbau, Aurea / Baldoni, Edoardo / Pisano, Milena / Spano, Giovanni / Massarelli, Olindo / Tallarico, Marco
Purpose: To compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes of platform switching (PS) and regular platform (RP) implants.
Materials and methods: This study was designed as a randomised controlled split-mouth trial. Eighteen patients, with bilaterally missing single premolars or molars to be restored with implant-supported single crowns, were consecutively enrolled. Implant sites were randomly assigned to be treated according to the PS concept (PS group), or with matching implant–abutment diameters (RP group). A total of 36 implants were placed in healed bone, with an insertion torque between 35 and 45 Ncm, according to a one-stage protocol. All the implants were loaded with a screw-retained provisional crown 3 months after implant insertion. Definitive screw-retained single crowns were delivered 2 months later. Outcome measures were implant and prosthetic survival rates, biological and prosthetic complications, marginal bone level (MBL) changes, pocket probing depth (PPD) and bleeding on probing (BOP). Clinical data were collected at implant placement (baseline), implant loading (3 months later) and at 9, 36 and 60 months after loading.
Results: One patient dropped out after 4 years of follow-up. No implant failed and no prosthetic complications were recorded during the study period. One patient experienced mucosal inflammation with positive BOP (RP group) after 3 months and three patients had bilateral peri-implant mucosal inflammation with positive BOP at 6, 24 and 36 months, respectively. No other biological complications were recorded up to 60 months of follow-up. There were no statistically significant differences between groups for complications (3/18 versus 4/18; P = 1.0). Nine months after loading the mean MBL was 0.93 ± 0.26 mm (95% CI 0.81 to 1.05) for RP implants and 0.84 ± 0.23 mm (95% CI 0.73 to 0.95) for PS implants. No statistically significant difference was observed between the groups (P = 0.18). Thirty-six months after loading, the mean MBL was 1.09 ± 0.31 mm (95% CI 0.95 to 1.24) in the RP group and 1.06 ± 0.24 mm (95% CI 0.94 to 1.17) in the PS group, with no statistically significant difference between groups (P = 0.70). Sixty months after loading the mean MBL was 1.24 ± 0.39 mm (95% CI 1.05 to 1.43) in the RP group and 1.20 ± 0.21 mm (95% CI 1.01 to 1.39) in the PS group, with no statistically significant difference between the groups (P = 0.85). The mean PPD was 2.58 ± 0.58 mm (95% CI 2.32 to 2.84) in the RP group and 2.40 ± 0.72 mm (95% CI 2.21 to 2.59) in the PS group at 60 months follow-up, with no statistically significant difference between the groups (P = 0.49). The mean BOP was 0.90 ± 0.88 (95% CI 0.58 to 1.22) in the RP group and 0.93 ± 0.97 (95% CI 0.51 to 1.35) in the PS group at 60 months of follow-up, with no statistically significant difference between the groups (P = 0.85).
Conclusions: Implants restored according to the PS concept and matching implant–abutment diameters showed comparable clinical and radiographic results up to 5 years after loading.

Conflict-of-interest statement: This study was not supported by any company. All the authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Keywords: dental abutment, dental implants, implant–abutment interface, marginal bone loss, platform switching