Int J Oral Implantol 12 (2019), No. 3 23. Sep. 2019
Int J Oral Implantol 12 (2019), No. 3 (23.09.2019)
Metal debris after dental implant placement: A proof-of-concept study in fresh frozen cadavers using MRI and histological analysis
Van der Cruyssen, Fréderic / de Faria Vasconcelos, Karla / Verhelst, Pieter-Jan / Shujaat, Sohaib / Delsupehe, Anne-Marie / Hauben, Esther / Orhan, Kaan / Politis, Constantinus / Jacobs, Reinhilde
Purpose: This report originated from the finding of metal artefacts on magnetic resonance images (MRI) which were not detected on panoramic radiography or cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. It was hypothesised that drills or implants might release metal particles during surgical procedures in the jawbones. Therefore, the aim was to assess whether dental implants or surgical drills might cause metal debris in the surrounding tissues.
Materials and methods: The experiment consisted of a postmortem and an antemortem model. A split-mouth design was carried out in a postmortem fresh frozen cadaver head. In the left mandible only the drill preparation sequence was performed, whereas in the right mandible, the drill sequence was followed by implant placement. Before surgery, the postmortem model underwent a baseline MRI acquisition. A second MRI (MRI2) was acquired after performing the osteotomies on both sides and implant placement on the right side. Finally, the implants were carefully removed, and a final MRI (MRI3) was acquired. Bone blocks containing the implant and osteotomy sites were isolated. For the antemortem model, a fresh frozen cadaver head was selected that already had implants in place. An implant in the anterior maxilla was removed and the surrounding bone block was isolated as well. A histological analysis was prepared for both models.
Results: In the antemortem model, histological analysis showed irregular-shaped dark particles near the bone-implant interface consistent with metal debris. Additionally, in the postmortem model, both sites showed metal artefacts on MRI2 and MRI3, and by using a balanced fast field echo sequence, and histological analysis, the suspected particles of metal debris were confirmed on both sides of the mandible.
Conclusions: Further studies should investigate the origin and extent of the metal debris following implant placement, as well as its clinical significance, possible risk factors and preventive measures.
Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare no financial disclosures or conflicts of interest.
Keywords: artefacts, dental materials, magnetic resonance imaging, radiology